① Hurricane Katrina Economy

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Hurricane Katrina Economy



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Hurricane Katrina Day by Day - National Geographic

This tornado caused three injuries and one fatality and damaged several houses. The other tornadoes caused significant damages to buildings and agricultural facilities. In addition to the fatality caused by the F2 tornado, there was another fatality in a traffic accident. Eastern Arkansas received light rain from the passage of Katrina. Katrina also caused a number of power outages in many areas, with over , customers affected in Tennessee , primarily in the Memphis and Nashville areas.

In Kentucky , rainfall from Katrina compounded flooding from a storm that had moved through during the previous weekend. A year-old girl drowned in Hopkinsville. Dozens of businesses were closed and several families evacuated due to rising floodwaters. Downed trees and power lines were reported in several counties in western Kentucky, especially Calloway and Christian counties.

Overall, more than 10, utility customers in western Kentucky experienced power outages. The remnants of Katrina spawned a tornado in Virginia, damaging at least 13 homes in Marshall. In addition, approximately 4, people lost electricity. Over 3 in 76 mm of rain fell in portions of West Virginia, causing localized flooding in several counties. At least homes and 7 buildings suffered some degree of water damage. A number of roads and bridges were inundated or washed out. The remnants of Katrina produced locally heavy precipitation in northeast Ohio, ranging from about 2 to 4 in 51 to mm.

Numerous streams and rivers overflowed their banks, forcing the closure of several roads, including Interstate 90 in Cleveland. Two deaths occurred due to a flood-related automobile accident in Huron County. Additionally, hundreds of homes and businesses suffered flood damage. Katrina spawned five tornadoes in Pennsylvania , though none resulted in significant damage. Up to 5 in mm of rain fell in western New York. Gusty winds also left approximately 4, people in Buffalo without electricity.

The remnants of Katrina brought 3 to 6 in 76 to mm of rain to portions of Massachusetts, causing flash flooding in Bristol and Plymouth counties. Very minimal impact was reported in Rhode Island , with winds downing a tree and two electrical poles in the city of Warwick. In Vermont , 2. The storm brought 3 to 5 in 76 to mm of precipitation to isolated areas of Maine and up to 9 in mm near Patten. Several roads were inundated or washed out by overflowing brooks and streams, including sections of U.

Route 1 and Maine routes 11 and Several structures and one parked vehicle were also affected by the waters. In Canada, the remnants of Katrina brought rainfall amounts in excess of 3. Inundated and washed out roads, including Route along the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River, Route north of Tadoussac , and Route near Forestville left several communities isolated for at least a week. The economic effects of the storm reached high levels.

Before the hurricane, the region supported approximately one million non-farm jobs, with , of them in New Orleans. Katrina displaced over one million people from the central Gulf coast to elsewhere across the United States, becoming the largest diaspora in the history of the United States. Chicago, Illinois received over 6, people, the most of any non-southern city. Census Bureau , the state of Louisiana showed a population decline of , or 4. Katrina also had a profound impact on the environment.

The storm surge caused substantial beach erosion , in some cases completely devastating coastal areas. In Dauphin Island a barrier island , approximately 90 mi km to the east of the point where the hurricane made landfall, the sand that comprised the island was transported across the island into the Mississippi Sound , pushing the island towards land. This, along with the canals built in the area, let Katrina keep more of its intensity when it struck. The damage from Katrina forced the closure of 16 National Wildlife Refuges. Breton National Wildlife Refuge lost half its area in the storm. Katrina also produced massive tree loss along the Gulf Coast, particularly in Louisiana's Pearl River Basin and among bottomland hardwood forests.

Before the storm, the standard mortality rate for the area's trees was 1. The storm caused oil spills from 44 facilities throughout southeastern Louisiana, which resulted in over 7 million US gallons 26, m 3 of oil being leaked. Some spills were only a few hundred gallons and most were contained on-site, though some oil entered the ecosystem and residential areas. After a spill at the Murphy Oil refinery, for example, 1, homes were oiled in the towns of Chalmette and Meraux. However, Skytruth reported some signs of surface oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Finally, as part of the cleanup effort, the floodwaters that covered New Orleans were pumped into Lake Pontchartrain, a process that took 43 days to complete. Shortly after the hurricane moved away on August 30, , some residents of New Orleans who remained in the city began looting stores.

Many were in search of food and water that were not available to them through any other means, as well as non-essential items. Some sources later determined that many of the reports were inaccurate, greatly exaggerated or completely false, leading news agencies to print retractions. Thousands of National Guard and federal troops were mobilized and sent to Louisiana, with 7, in the area on August 29, to a maximum of 46, on September A number of local law enforcement agents from across the country were temporarily deputized by the state. These troops know how to shoot and kill and I expect they will," Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco said. There was sniping going on. Over the first week of September, law and order were gradually restored to the city.

Six other former or current officers appeared in court in June Overall, a number of arrests were made throughout the affected area, including some near the New Orleans Convention Center. A temporary jail was constructed of chain link cages in the New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal , the city's main train station. In West Virginia, where roughly refugees were located, local officials took fingerprints to run criminal background checks on the refugees.

Within the United States and as delineated in the National Response Plan , disaster response and planning is first and foremost a local government responsibility. When local government exhausts its resources, it then requests specific additional resources from the county level. The request process proceeds similarly from the county to the state to the federal government as additional resource needs are identified. Many of the problems that arose developed from inadequate planning and back-up communication systems at various levels.

Some disaster relief response to Katrina began before the storm, with the Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA preparations that ranged from logistical supply deployments to a mortuary team with refrigerated trucks. A network of volunteers began rendering assistance to local residents and residents emerging from New Orleans and surrounding parishes as soon as the storm made landfall even though many were directed to not enter the area , and continued for more than six months after the storm []. Of the 60, people stranded in New Orleans, the Coast Guard rescued more than 33, Michael Chertoff, Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security , decided to take over the federal, state, and local operations officially on August 30, , citing the National Response Plan.

Bush to raise additional voluntary contributions, much as they did after the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. FEMA provided housing assistance rental assistance, trailers , etc. However, only one-fifth of the trailers requested in Orleans Parish were supplied, resulting in an enormous housing shortage in the city of New Orleans. To provide for additional housing, FEMA has also paid for the hotel costs of 12, individuals and families displaced by Katrina through February 7, , when a final deadline was set for the end of hotel cost coverage. After this deadline, evacuees were still eligible to receive federal assistance, which could be used towards either apartment rent, additional hotel stays, or fixing their ruined homes, although FEMA no longer paid for hotels directly.

Law enforcement and public safety agencies, from across the United States, provided a " mutual aid " response to Louisiana and New Orleans in the weeks following the disaster. Many agencies responded with manpower and equipment from as far away as California , Michigan , Nevada , New York, and Texas. This response was welcomed by local Louisiana authorities as their staff were either becoming fatigued, stretched too thin, or even quitting from the job. Two weeks after the storm, more than half of the states were involved in providing shelter for evacuees. By four weeks after the storm, evacuees had been registered in all 50 states and in 18, zip codes—half of the nation's residential postal zones.

Most evacuees had stayed within miles km , but , households went to Houston and other cities over miles km away and another 60, households went over miles 1, km away. The criticisms of the government's response to Hurricane Katrina primarily consisted of criticism of mismanagement and lack of leadership in the relief efforts in response to the storm and its aftermath. More specifically, the criticism focused on the delayed response to the flooding of New Orleans, and the subsequent state of chaos in the city.

Within days of Katrina's August 29 landfall, public debate arose about the local, state and federal governments' role in the preparations for and response to the hurricane. Criticism was initially prompted by televised images of visibly shaken and frustrated political leaders, and of residents who remained stranded by floodwaters without water , food , or shelter. Deaths from thirst , exhaustion and violence days after the storm had passed fueled the criticism, as did the dilemma of the evacuees at facilities such as the Louisiana Superdome and the New Orleans Civic Center.

Some alleged that race , class , and other factors could have contributed to delays in government response. For example, during A Concert for Hurricane Relief , a benefit concert for victims of the hurricane, rapper Kanye West veered off script and harshly criticized the government's response to the crisis, stating that "George Bush doesn't care about black people. In accordance with federal law, President George W. Chertoff designated Michael D. Brown , head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as the Principal Federal Official to lead the deployment and coordination of all federal response resources and forces in the Gulf Coast region. However, the President and Secretary Chertoff initially came under harsh criticism for what some perceived as a lack of planning and coordination.

Brown claimed that Governor Blanco resisted their efforts and was unhelpful. Governor Blanco and her staff disputed this. Allen replaced him as chief of hurricane relief operations. Politicians, activists, pundits, and journalists also directed criticism at the local and state governments headed by Mayor Nagin of New Orleans and Louisiana Governor Blanco. Nagin and Blanco were criticized for failing to implement New Orleans's evacuation plan and for ordering residents to a shelter of last resort without any provisions for food, water, security, or sanitary conditions. Perhaps the most important criticism of Nagin was that he delayed his emergency evacuation order until 19 hours before landfall, which led to hundreds of deaths of people who could not find any way out of the city.

The destruction wrought by Hurricane Katrina raised other, more general public policy issues about emergency management , environmental policy , poverty , and unemployment. The discussion of both the immediate response and of the broader public policy issues may have affected elections and legislation enacted at various levels of government. The storm's devastation also prompted a Congressional investigation, which found that FEMA and the Red Cross "did not have a logistics capacity sophisticated enough to fully support the massive number of Gulf coast victims.

Over seventy countries pledged monetary donations or other assistance. India sent tarps, blankets, and hygiene kits. Israel sent an IDF delegation to New Orleans to transport aid equipment including 80 tons of food, disposable diapers, beds, blankets, generators and additional equipment which were donated from different governmental institutions, civilian institutions, and the IDF. The team administered first aid to survivors, rescued abandoned pets and discovered hurricane victims. Countries like Sri Lanka, which was still recovering from the Indian Ocean Tsunami , also offered to help.

Canada , Mexico , Singapore , and Germany sent supplies, relief personnel like Technisches Hilfswerk , troops, ships and water pumps to aid in the disaster recovery. Belgium sent in a team of relief personnel. The United Kingdom's donation of , emergency meals did not reach victims because of laws regarding mad cow disease. Russia's initial offer of two jets was declined by the U. State Department but accepted later. The French offer was also declined and requested later. They were not allowed into New Orleans proper by the National Guard for several days after the storm because of safety concerns. For example, two privately chartered planes from FasterCures evacuated patients from Charity Hospital in New Orleans.

Volunteers from the Amateur Radio Emergency Service provided communications in areas where the communications infrastructure had been damaged or totally destroyed, relaying everything from traffic to messages home. Many private corporations also contributed to relief efforts. None were allowed in New Orleans, however. In addition, , comfort kits including such basic necessities as toothpaste, soap, washcloths, and toys for children and , cleanup kits containing brooms, mops, and bleach were distributed.

For mass care, the organization served 68 million snacks and meals to victims of the disasters and to rescue workers. Red Cross emergency financial assistance was provided to 1. Hurricane Katrina was the first natural disaster in the United States in which the American Red Cross utilized its "Safe and Well" family location website. Direct Relief provided a major response in the Gulf states so health providers could treat the local patients and evacuees. The organization's immediate response to Hurricane Katrina included more than 5. Its SATERN network of amateur radio operators picked up where modern communications left off to help locate more than 25, survivors. Salvation Army pastoral care counselors were on hand to comfort the emotional and spiritual needs of , individuals.

As part of the overall effort, Salvation Army officers, employees, and volunteers contributed more than , hours of service. According to a modeling exercise conducted by the U. A June report released by the American Society of Civil Engineers determined that the failures of the levees and flood walls in New Orleans were found to be primarily the result of system design and construction flaws. Army Corps of Engineers had been federally mandated in the Flood Control Act of with responsibility for the conception, design, and construction of the region's flood-control system. All of the major studies in the aftermath of Katrina concluded that the USACE was responsible for the failure of the levees. This was primarily attributed to a decision to use shorter steel sheet pilings during construction in an effort to save money.

District Court ruled that despite the Corps' role in the flooding, the agency [7] could not be held financially liable because of sovereign immunity in the Flood Control Act of Exactly ten years after Katrina, J. David Rogers, lead author of a new report in the official journal of the World Water Council, concluded that the flooding during Katrina "could have been prevented had the corps retained an external review board to double-check its flood-wall designs. Other factors may have contributed to the flooding. According to the authors of Catastrophe in the Making Island Press, , the straight design and lack of outward flow into the Gulf allowed the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal to become "the perfect shortcut for salt-water intrusion" which damaged buffering cypress forests and wetlands which historically had protected New Orleans from storm surge.

Furthermore, according to storm surge researcher Hassan Mashriqui:. Initially ten or more miles apart, these two channels meet, and when they do, the water building between their levees is squeezed into a single channel — the Funnel — only yards wide, constrained by levees 14 feet to 16 feet high…. In concert with the denuded marshes, it could increase the local storm surge hitting the Intracoastal Waterway by 20 percent to 40 percent — a critical and fundamental flaw. The Corps of Engineers disputes these causalities.

Many of the levees have been reconstructed since Katrina. In reconstructing them, precautions were taken to bring the levees up to modern building code standards and to ensure their safety. For example, in every situation possible, the Corps of Engineers replaced I-walls with T-walls, which have a horizontal concrete base that protects against soil erosion underneath the flood walls. Funding battles continue over the remaining levee improvements. Bush promised to include the levee funding in his budget but rejected the idea of including the funding in a war bill, which would pass sooner.

Many representatives of the news media reporting on the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina became directly involved in the unfolding events, instead of simply reporting. Because of the loss of most means of communication, such as land-based and cellular telephone systems, field reporters in many cases became conduits for information between victims and authorities. The authorities, who monitored local and network news broadcasts, as well as internet sites, would then attempt to coordinate rescue efforts based on the reports. One illustration was when Geraldo Rivera of Fox News tearfully pleaded for authorities to either send help or evacuate the thousands of evacuees stranded at the Ernest N.

Morial Convention Center. Announcers continued to broadcast from improvised studio facilities after the storm damaged their main studios. The storm also brought a dramatic rise in the role of websites—especially blogging and community journalism. One example was the effort of NOLA. The site became an international focal point for news by local media, and also became a vital link for rescue operations and later for reuniting scattered residents, as it accepted and posted thousands of individual pleas for rescue on its blogs and forums.

NOLA was monitored constantly by an array of rescue teams—from individuals to the Coast Guard—which used information in rescue efforts. Much of this information was relayed from trapped victims via the SMS functions of their cell phones, to friends and relatives outside the area, who then relayed the information back to NOLA. The aggregation of community journalism, user photos, and the use of the internet site as a collaborative response to the storm attracted international attention and was called a watershed moment in journalism. As the U. On September 9, the military leader of the relief effort announced that reporters would have "zero access" to efforts to recover bodies in New Orleans. Immediately following this announcement, CNN filed a lawsuit and obtained a temporary restraining order against the ban.

The next day the government backed down and reversed the ban. Because of the large death toll and destruction of property along the Gulf Coast , the name Katrina was officially retired on April 6, , by the World Meteorological Organization at the request of the U. The name will never again be used for another North Atlantic hurricane. An article published in the Community Mental Health Journal from January revealed information about a recent study on the psychosocial needs of Hurricane Katrina evacuees that temporarily resided in Dallas, Texas.

More than one-fourth of the sample met the criteria for major depressive disorder MDD. About one-third of the individuals received a referral to mental health services for meeting symptom criteria for incident MDD and PTSD. In a study published in Maternal and Child Health Journal , five to seven years after the disaster, New Orleans pregnant women were interviewed about their exposure to Katrina. Researchers found that there were associations between experiencing damage during Katrina and birthweight, thus researchers concluded that natural disasters may have long-term effects on pregnancy outcomes.

Furthermore, it was concluded that women who are most vulnerable to disaster may be more vulnerable to poor pregnancy outcome. From a September journal of Current Psychology , a study examined the attitudes of older, long-term residents of Baton Rouge, Louisiana toward displaced newcomers to their community. After using multiple tests, analyses, and descriptive statistics, the study suggested residents grew to become more patient, tolerant, and friendly towards newcomers. The study also suggests, however, that residents felt more fearful and suspicious of the evacuees, as well as the fact that they were being taken advantage of more.

The U. Army Corps of Engineers submitted the report to the U. Congress for consideration, planning, and response in mid Katrina is the costliest tropical cyclone on record, tying with Hurricane Harvey in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in Not to be confused with Hurricane Catarina or Hurricane Karina. For other storms of the same name, see Tropical Storm Katrina. Hurricane Katrina at peak intensity in the Gulf of Mexico on August Main article: Meteorological history of Hurricane Katrina.

Main article: Preparations for Hurricane Katrina. See also: Hurricane preparedness for New Orleans. Main article: Hurricane Katrina effects by region. Play media. Main article: Effects of Hurricane Katrina in Florida. Main article: Effects of Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Economic effects of Hurricane Katrina. Main article: Criticism of the government response to Hurricane Katrina. Main article: International response to Hurricane Katrina. Main article: levee failures in Greater New Orleans. Main article: Media coverage of Hurricane Katrina.

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An even greater danger will then begin over the Gulf, where forecasts were aligned in predicting Ida will strengthen very quickly into a major hurricane, reaching mph kph before landfall in the Mississippi River delta late Sunday, the hurricane center said. Katrina is blamed for an estimated 1, deaths from the central Louisiana coast to around the Mississippi-Alabama state line. A massive storm surge scoured the shores and wiped houses off the map.

In New Orleans, failures of federal levees led to catastrophic flooding. Some victims drowned in their attics. The Superdome and New Orleans Convention Center became scenes of sweltering misery as tens of thousands were stranded without power or running water. Memories of Katrina still haunt many who scrambled to prepare for Ida on Friday, lining up for groceries, gas and ice, and the city was offering sandbags. Traffic snarled at entrances to a New Orleans Costco, where dozens of cars were backed up at the gas pumps and shoppers wheeled out carts stacked with cases of bottled water and other essentials.

Retired police officer Wondell Smith, who worked on the police force 16 years ago when Katrina hit, said he and his family were planning to stay, but were also getting ready to head farther inland if the forecasts worsened. He loaded water, bread and sandwich meat into his SUV. A hurricane watch for New Orleans and an emergency declaration for the state of Louisiana were declared.

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