🔥🔥🔥 5th Grade Classroom Observation

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5th Grade Classroom Observation

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Compare contrast essay rubric the economist essay competition college essay question identity essays structure clinical case study fatigued a case on blood exemple de paragraphe d'une dissertation critique. Great way to teach students all the ways to test for mineral identification! Great resource for mineral identification. Can be used as an introduction to do testing in your classroom or just on its own. Easy for 4th graders. We do Activity A together and Activity B with a partner.

Sometimes mineral testing seems subjective to inexperienced students. This gizmo provides some "concrete" mineral assessment results! What a great learning game! I teach 5th grade and this was great Gizmo for them to understand the various properties used to identify minerals. So much fun! Really groovy!!! My students loved this! Great way to identify minerals, and the lesson materials are excellent! If you do not have mineral samples, this is a very good Gizmo to show your students how to identify minerals.

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Indeed, the distinction between instructional activities and assessment activities may be blurred, particularly when the assessment purpose is formative. A classroom. Science and engineering practices lend themselves well to assessment activities that can provide this type of evidence. For instance, when students are developing and using models, they may be given the opportunity to explain their models and to discuss them with classmates, thus providing the teacher with an opportunity for formative assessment reflection illustrated in Example 4 , below. A classroom assessment may also involve a formal test or diagnostic quiz.

Or it may be based on artifacts that are the products of classroom activities, rather than on tasks designed solely for assessment purposes. These artifacts may include student work produced in the classroom, homework assignments such as lab reports , a portfolio of student work collected over the course of a unit or a school year which may include both artifacts of instruction as well as results from formal unit and end-of-course tests , or activities conducted using computer technology.

A classroom assessment may occur in the context of group work or discussions, as long as the teacher ensures that all the students that need to be observed are in fact active participants. Tasks with Multiple Components. The NGSS performance expectations each blend a practice and, in some cases, also a crosscutting idea with an aspect of a particular core idea. Progression in learning was generally thought of as knowing more or providing more complete and correct responses. Similarly, practices were intentionally assessed in a way that minimized specific content knowledge demands—assessments were more likely to ask for definitions than for actual use of the practice.

Assessment developers took this approach in part to be sure they were obtaining accurate measures of clearly definable constructs. As we note in Chapter 3 , the performance expectations provide a start in defining the claim or inference that is to be made about student proficiency. However, it is also important to determine the observations the forms of evidence in student work that are needed to support the claims, and then to develop tasks or situations that will elicit the needed evidence.

The task development approaches described in Chapter 3 are commonly used for developing external tests, but they can also be useful in guiding the design of classroom assessments. Considering the intended inference, or claim, about student learning will help curriculum developers and classroom assessment designers ensure that the tasks elicit the needed evidence. As we note in Chapter 2 , assessment tasks aligned with the NGSS performance expectations will need to have multiple components—that is, be composed of more than one kind of activity or question. They will need to include opportunities for students to engage in practices as a means to demonstrate their capacity to apply them.

For example, a task designed to elicit evidence that a student can develop and use models to support explanations about structure-function relationships in the context of a core idea will need to have several components. It may require that students articulate a claim about selected structure-function relationships, develop or describe a model that supports the claim, and provide a justification that links evidence to the claim such as an explanation of an observed phenomenon described by the model.

A multicomponent task may include some short-answer questions, possibly some carefully designed selected-response questions, and some extended-response elements that require students to demonstrate their understandings such as tasks in which students design an investigation or explain a pattern of data. For the purpose of making an appraisal of student learning, no single piece of evidence is likely to be sufficient; rather, the pattern of evidence across multiple components can provide a sufficient indicator of student understanding.

It can be used to refer to a very specific aspect of tested content e. The NGSS emphasize the importance of the connections among scientific concepts. Thus, the NGSS performance expectations for one disciplinary core idea may be connected to performance expectations for other core ideas, both within the same domain or in other domains, in multiple ways: one core idea may be a prerequisite for understanding another, or a task may be linked to more than one performance expectation and thus involve more than one practice in the context of a given core idea. NGSS-aligned tasks will need to be constructed so that they provide information about how well students make these connections. Tasks that do not address these connections will not fully capture or adequately support three-dimensional science learning.

The framework and the NGSS address the process of learning science. The framework and the NGSS also postulate that students will develop disciplinary understandings by engaging in practices that help them to question and explain the functioning of natural and designed systems. Although learning is an ongoing process for both scientists and students, students are emerging practitioners of science, not scientists, and their ways of acting and reasoning differ from those of scientists in important ways. The framework discusses the importance of seeing learning as a trajectory in which students gradually progress in the course of a unit or a year, and across the whole K span, and organizing instruction accordingly.

As they begin the task, students are not competent data. They are unaware of how displays can convey ideas or of professional conventions for display and the rationale for these conventions. In designing their own displays, students begin to develop an understanding of the value of these conventions. Their partial and incomplete understandings of data visualization have to be explicitly identified so teachers can help them develop a more general understanding.

Teachers help students learn about how different mathematical practices, such as ordering and counting data, influence the shapes the data take in models. The students come to understand how the shapes of the data support inferences about population growth. A key goal of classroom assessments is to help teachers and students understand what has been learned and what areas will require further attention. NGSS-aligned assessments will also need to identify likely misunderstandings, productive ideas of students that can be built upon, and interim goals for learning. To teach toward the NGSS performance expectations, teachers will need a sense of the likely progression at a more micro level, to answer such questions as:. As we note in Chapter 2 ,. We have identified six example tasks and task sets that illustrate the elements needed to assess the development of three-dimensional science learning.

However, the constructs being measured by each of these examples are similar to those found in the NGSS performance expectations. Table shows the NGSS disciplinary core ideas, practices, and crosscutting ideas that are closest to the assessment targets for all of the examples in the report. We emphasize that there are many possible designs for activities or tasks that assess three-dimensional science learning—these six examples are only a sampling of the possible range. They demonstrate a variety of approaches, but they share some common attributes.

All of them require students to use some aspects of one or more science and engineering practices in the course of demonstrating and defending their understanding of aspects of a disciplinary core idea. Each of them also includes multiple components, such as asking students to engage in an activity, to work independently on a modeling or other task, and to discuss their thinking or defend their argument.

These examples also show how one can use classroom work products and discussions as formative assessment opportunities. In addition, several of the examples include summative assessments. Moreover, the time students spend in doing and reflecting on these tasks should. However, because they predate the NGSS and its emphasis on crosscutting concepts, only a few of these examples include reference to a crosscutting concept, and none of them attempts to assess student understanding of, or disposition to invoke, such concepts. We note that the example assessment tasks also produce a variety of products and scorable evidence. For some we include illustrations of typical student work, and for others we include a construct map or scoring rubric used to guide the data interpretation process.

Both are needed to develop an effective scoring system. Each example has been used in classrooms to gather information about particular core ideas and practices. The examples are drawn from different grade levels and assess knowledge related to different disciplinary core ideas. Evidence from their use documents that, with appropriate prior instruction, students can successfully carry out these kinds of tasks.

We describe and illustrate each of these examples below and close the chapter with general reflections about the examples, as well as our overall conclusions and recommendations about classroom assessment. Example 3: Measuring Silkworms. The committee chose this example because it illustrates several of the characteristics we argue an assessment aligned with the NGSS must have: in particular, it allows the teacher to place students along a defined learning trajectory see Figure in Chapter 3 , while assessing both a disciplinary core idea and a crosscutting concept.

It is closely tied to instruction—the assessment is embedded in a set of classroom activities. A construct map displayed in Figure shows developing conceptions of data display. Once the students collect their data measure the silkworms and produce their own ways of visually representing their findings, the teacher uses the data displays as the basis for a discussion that has several objectives. The teacher uses the construct map to identify data displays that demonstrate several levels on the trajectory. During this conversation, the students begin to appreciate the basis for conventions about display.

The mismatches between their icons and the actual relative lengths of the organisms become clear in the discussion. The teacher also invites students to consider how using mathematical ideas related to ordering, counting, and intervals helped them develop different shapes to represent the same data. Some of the student displays make a bell-like shape more evident, which inspires further questions and considerations in the whole-class discussion see Figure in Chapter 3 : students notice that the tails of the distribution are comparatively sparse, especially for the longer larvae, and wonder why. As noted in Chapter 3 , they speculate about the possible reasons for the differences, which leads to a discussion and conclusions about competition for resources, which in turn leads them to consider not only individual silkworms, but the entire population of silkworms.

Hence, this assessment provides students with opportunities for learning about representations, while also providing the teacher with information about their understanding of a crosscutting concept pattern and disciplinary core concepts population-level descriptions of variability and the mechanisms that produce it. The committee chose this example to show the use of classroom discourse to assess student understanding. This assessment is used formatively and is closely tied to classroom instruction. Classroom discussions can be a critical component of formative assessment.

They provide a way for students to engage in scientific practices and for teachers to instantly monitor what the students do and do not understand. In this example, 6th-grade students are asked to develop a model to explain the behavior of air. The activity leads them to an investigation of phase change and the nature of air. The example is from a single class period in a unit devoted to developing a conceptual model of a gas as an assemblage of moving particles with space between them; it consists of a structured task and a discussion guided by the teacher Krajcik et al. The teacher is aware of an area of potential difficulty for students, namely, a lack of understanding that there is empty space between the molecules of air.

She uses group-developed models and student discussion of them as a probe to evaluate whether this understanding has been reached or needs further development. When students come to this activity in the course of the unit, they have already reached consensus on several important ideas they can use in constructing their models. They have defined matter as anything that takes up space and has mass. They have concluded that gases—including air—are matter.

They have determined through investigation that more air can be added to a container even when it already seems full and that air can be subtracted from a container without changing its size. They are thus left with questions about how more matter can be forced into a space that already seems to be full and what happens to matter when it spreads out to occupy more space. In this activity, students are given a syringe and asked to gradually pull the plunger in and out of it to explore the air pressure. They notice the pressure. They find that little or no air escapes when they manipulate the plunger. They are asked to work in small groups to develop a model to explain what happens to the air so that the same amount of it can occupy the syringe regardless of the volume of space available.

The groups are asked to provide models of the air with the syringe in three positions: see Figure Figure shows the first models produced by five groups of students to depict the air in the syringe in its first position. The teacher asks the class to discuss the different models and to try to reach consensus on how to model the behavior of air to explain their observations. Exactly what, if anything, is in between the air particles emerges as a point of contention as the students discuss their models. The actual classroom discussion is shown in Box The discussion shows how students engage in several scientific and engineering practices as they construct and defend their understanding about a disciplinary core idea.

In this case, the key disciplinary idea is that there must be empty space between moving particles, which allows them to move, either to become more densely packed or to spread apart. The teacher can assess the way the students have drawn their models, which reveals that their understanding is not complete. They have agreed that all matter, including gas, is made of particles that are moving, but many of the students do not understand what is in between these moving particles. Several students indicate that they think there is air between the air par-. Reprinted with permission from Sangari Active Science.

Other students disagree that there can be air between the particles or that air particles are touching, although they do not yet articulate an argument for empty space between the particles, an idea that students begin to understand more clearly in subsequent lessons. Drawing on her observations, the teacher asks questions. The teacher then uses this observation to make instructional decisions. It is important to note that the teacher does not simply bring up this question, but instead uses the disagreement that emerges from the discussion as the basis for the question.

Later interviews with the teacher reveal that she had in fact anticipated that the empty space between particles would come up and was prepared to take advantage of that opportunity. The discussion thus provides insights into stu-. The models themselves provide a context in which the students can clarify their thinking and refine their models in response to the critiques, to make more explicit claims to explain what they have observed. Thus, this activity focuses their attention on key explanatory issues Reiser, This example also illustrates the importance of engaging students in practices to help them develop understanding of disciplinary core ideas while also giving teachers information to guide instruction. The committee chose this example to show how a teacher can monitor developing understanding in the course of a lesson.

The assessments are used formatively and are closely tied to classroom instruction. In the previous example Example 4 , the teacher orchestrates a discussion in which students present alternative points of view and then come to consensus about a disciplinary core idea through the practice of argumentation. The responses are gathered by a central receiver and immediately tallied for the teacher—or the whole class—to see. Of the students who responded to the task, 46 percent were Latino.

Haley: I think you should color the whole circle in, because dust. I mean air is everywhere, so. If I color this whole thing in. B colors in the whole region completely to show the air as Haley suggests. Alyssa: But then, how would you show the other molecules? I mean, you said air is everything, but then how. Haley: Yeah. Haley: Um. Addison: Um, I have an idea. Jerome: Yeah.

I was gonna say that, or you could like erase it. If you make it all dark, you can just erase it and all of them will be. Frank: Just erase some parts of the, uh. B: OK. Talk to your partners. Is this what we want? Students discuss in groups whether air particles are touching or not, and what is between the particles if anything. In this activity, which also takes place in a single class session, the teacher structures a conversation about how the movement of water affects the deposition of surface and subsurface materials. It also requires students to reason about models of geosphere-hydrosphere interactions, which is an example of the crosscutting concept pertaining to systems and system models.

These questions have been tested in classrooms, and the response choices reflect common student ideas, including those that are especially problematic. In the course of both small-group and whole-class discussions, students construct and challenge possible explanations of the process of deposition. If students have difficulty in developing explanations, teachers can guide students to activities designed to improve their understanding, such as interpreting models of the deposition of surface and subsurface materials. When students begin this activity, they will just have completed a set of investigations of weathering, erosion, and deposition that are part of a curriculum on investigating Earth systems.

Students select their answers using clickers. The green areas marked above show the place where a river flows into an ocean. Why does this river look like a triangle or fan where it flows into the ocean? Be prepared to explain your response. Answer B: The water is transporting all the sediment to the ocean, where it is being deposited.

Pairs or small groups of students then discuss their reasoning and offer explanations for their choices to the whole class. Teachers help students begin the small-group discussions by asking why someone might select A, B, or C, implying that any of them could be a reasonable response. After discussing their reasoning, students again vote, using their clickers. In this example, the student responses recorded using the clicker technology are scorable. A separate set of assessments not discussed here produces scores to evaluate the efficacy of the project as a whole. In these activities, students might be asked to interpret models, construct explanations, and make predictions using those models as a way to deepen their understanding of Earth systems.

In this example about the movement of air,. The aim of this kind of assessment activity is to guide teachers in using assessment techniques to improve student learning outcomes. The contingent activities that provide alternative ways for students to master the core ideas by engaging in particular practices are an integral component of the formative assessment process. Example 6: Biodiversity in the Schoolyard. The committee chose this example to show the use of multiple interrelated tasks to assess a disciplinary core idea, biodiversity, with multiple science practices. As part of an extended unit, students complete four assessment tasks. The first three serve formative purposes and are designed to function close to instruction, informing the teacher about how well students have learned key concepts and mastered practices.

The last assessment task serves a summative purpose, as an end-of-unit test, and is an example of a proximal assessment. The tasks address concepts related to biodiversity and science practices in an integrated fashion. These tasks, developed by researchers as part of an examination of the development of complex reasoning, are intended for use in an extended unit of study. The students whose teachers used the Contingent Pedagogies Project demonstrated greater proficiency in earth science objectives than did students in classrooms in which teachers only had access to the regular curriculum materials Penuel et al.

Task 1: Collect data on the number of animals abundance and the number of different species richness in schoolyard zones. Instructions: Once you have formed your team, your teacher will assign your team to a zone in the schoolyard. Your job is to go outside and spend approximately 40 minutes observing and recording all of the animals and signs of animals that you see in your schoolyard zone during that time.

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