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Who Is Harriet Spielbergs Instructing The Children

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ICT is facilitating the management of such dispersed production and is a driving force behind the global value chains referred to above Yusuf, Altaf, and Nabeshima This process enables a firm to prune its staff and to focus on the core activities in which it has the greatest comparative advantage and from which it can reap the highest returns.

The advances in ICT and the virtual agglomeration of services permit companies to work with providers that are spread across the national economy and beyond, often in many different time zones. Firms engaged in producing software or supplying Web services, for example, can sustain round-the-clock operations by distributing their production activities among several centers, such as Bangalore, Tel Aviv, Zurich, and San Francisco. Soon this list could include many other medium-size cities in Asia and throughout the world. Small and medium-size enterprises rely far more on local resources, and theirs is frequently a local and in-house expertise. Such local knowledge can be an asset in promoting a product or service or in developing a new product.

Thus, a local partner is often necessary for a foreign firm seeking to enter the Chinese market, though the preference See also Roberts , chapter 5 on the changing organization of the multinational corporation. Carlsson and Foray have emphasized the globalization of research and the relative advantages that multinational corporations have in sourcing research expertise from around the world and using the most talented research teams. Small size is a handicap when it comes to reducing unit costs, selling to an international clientele, or building the capacity to innovate within the firm24 or through outsourcing, because transaction costs and information asymmetries make it more difficult for the firm to link up with universities or research institutes.

There are signs of increasing concentrations in several industries—including retailing, accounting, telephony, and electronics—that could lead to a more bimodal industrial distribution. The larger Asian companies have been slow to adopt a flatter organizational structure and to pursue vertical disintegration. The ICT-led productivity revolution that is sweeping through the industrial countries is beginning, but it is still in the early stages. Much of the lagging productivity stems from the fact that 99 percent of retail stores in Korea in were single-unit stores, not belonging to any chains. By contrast, 80 percent of stores in the United States are department stores, specialty chain stores, and discounters Baily Services providers in East Asia were able to resist the pressures because of low labor costs and limited competition, but in the megacities, change is stirring rapidly.

Two of the leading services industries, retailing and finance, are both being transformed by advances in computerization, digitization, automation, logistics, and communications that were introduced by companies such as Wal-Mart,27 Carrefours, Most small firms do not introduce more than a single new product or service. Germany was identified in this study as the country with the largest share of innovative firms Mohnen, Mairesse, and Dagenais Even the productivity of a small number of department and specialty stores in Korea is only 60 percent of similar types of stores in the United States Baily The effect of Wal-Mart is also spreading around the world, with imitators springing up in Asia.

These industries are substantially reducing the number of workers required while raising the productivity of the ones who remain, are transferring jobs to other low-wage locations, and are slowly ratcheting up the cognitive content and skill intensity of the work that remains. In addition to improving the quality of health care, such developments will drastically reduce hospital stay while increasing the roles of telecare and telemedicine and will begin to trim administrative costs, especially those arising from billing, recordkeeping, and sharing of patient records. What will these developments do to the industrial economy of the East Asian city?

Labor-intensive light manufacturing will exit the megacities. This exit does not mean that manufacturing is on its way out, but that the viable manufacturing industries will be capital-, skill-, and technologyintensive ones. One offshoot will be a diminution in the number of highly paid blue-collar jobs. If those jobs are replaced by more productive ones in new creative industries and services, and if the number of new jobs rises strongly, the future for the postindustrial city is bright.

An early glimpse of what might be in store for other cities that are slow to diversify their industrial base as traditional industries fade is provided by Hong Kong China which has experienced a sharp dip in the share of manufacturing in GDP from 25 percent in to 7 percent in Consequently, despite of the growth of services, income distribution in Hong Kong China has deteriorated steadily since the early s, with the cumulative share of the bottom 60 percent of households falling and the top 10 percent enjoying a substantial increase Zhao, Chan, and Sit Gordon b attributes much of the productivity surge in the United States to ICT-using industries such as retailing and financial services.

In the U. See also Sassen , on factors contributing to increasing inequality in other major cities. Manufacturing employment data are derived from tables on the number of staff and workers in industry in various issues of the China Statistical Yearbook National Bureau of Statistics of China various years , except for data, which are calculated from the employment section of the China Statistical Yearbook. De-industrialization and the rise of [services] supporting these changes all contributed to the worsening income inequality.

Since —, the employment elasticity for manufacturing has been negative. It is also negative, but less so, for secondary industry as a whole. Most striking is the sharp decline in the jobs being created by the tertiary sector per unit of growth. The elasticity, which was a healthy 0. For the postindustrial East Asian cities—and for that matter any major city in the industrial world—the need to refresh and expand the industrial base is urgent and increasing. Technology, globalization, and the increasingly footloose behavior of industries and of multinational corporations have made it imperative for cities to anticipate continuums of change. In those circumstances, it is becoming hazardous to assume that market forces will smoothly orchestrate structural changes across the competing urban centers and, on balance, engineer positive-sum outcomes.

The more plausible One consequence is that the wages of these hotly sought after jobs in multinational corporations are rising 6 to 10 percent a year when the overall inflation rate is only 2 percent. Postindustrial cities now need their strategies. What we want to emphasize is a that the key determinant of both trends is technology and b that technology can bring jobs to urban areas as well as take them elsewhere. Advances in technology—especially in IT— have enormously expanded the menu of services that are available to us and have created entirely new wants.

Some of those wants now border on necessities. The purveyors of those bundles, such as NTT DoCoMo in Japan or Apple, are finding that the profits accrue more from the innovative services component than from the equally innovative hardware. The most commonly purchased items were ring tones 84 percent , images for wallpaper 43 percent , music 22 percent , and games 20 percent. Nearly 44 million mobile phones were sold in Japan in The race is intensifying, not only to introduce innovations in hardware but also to multiply the range of services offered by tapping latent wants or creating entirely new ones. Starting with the industrial revolution in the United Kingdom more than two centuries ago, the story of industry is inextricable from that of technology. Technology has continually introduced new products through epochal innovations such as the steam engine, electricity, the internal combustion engine, synthetic fibers, the integrated circuit, robotics, and the Internet, each of which brought huge waves of change in industrial processes extending over decades.

The full effects of the integrated circuit and the Internet have yet to be felt, and those of biotechnology are still over the horizon; however, the early experience with the diffusion of ICT is that it is accelerating the pace of creative destruction Chun and others Three types of process innovations are particularly relevant for our story. First are those that have displaced human labor by harnessing other sources of energy—mainly hydrocarbon-based energy. Water, electricity, and the internal combustion engine fall into this category.

Second are the innovations that have substituted capital equipment and primitive forms of artificial intelligence for human operators. Such innovations range from forklifts to various kinds of industrial robots,35 to computerized monitoring equipment, to diagnostic programs, to speech recognition software. Third, and most recently, are the enormous gains in logistics and communication technology that are enabling companies to change the geography of manufacturing by exploiting the diminution of distance to substitute cheaper labor in the hinterland of the country or in other nations for higher-paid urban workers. Those technological steps have also resulted in an increase in the ratio of skilled workers in the total industrial labor force, although this increase is by no means a steady or uniform trend.

Some of the most advanced process technologies in the consumer electronics and auto industries continue to employ large numbers of semiskilled or unskilled workers, who perform narrowly defined, repetitive, and specialized tasks on vast assembly lines. But on balance, process technologies are becoming more human capital intensive. Manufacturing firms are coming to recognize and capitalize on the complementarities among manufactured products and services. General Electric, a leading producer of locomotives, now markets haulage services to railway companies rather than selling its engines.

Ford and General Motors are active in financial services and insurance, businesses that dovetail with their mainstream operations. Sony, Samsung, and Nokia are all seeking to enlarge the entertainment market and the services that they provide through their hardware. Hardware can be quickly commodified, but entertainment offers a larger stream of rents. Schindler, one of the leading producers of elevators, anticipates that by the end of the decade only 10 percent of its workforce will be in manufacturing; the rest will be providing services. In the automobile business, design is increasingly critical.

Their productivity and innovativeness depends on the exchange of ideas and tacit knowledge, often through face-to-face contact, which is facilitated by clustering in the central areas of a city, as observed by Leamer and Storper Producer services—for instance, financial and legal ones—fall into this category, as do the creative industries such as publishing, multimedia, design, and entertainment. Silicon Alley arose from such a grouping of business Whether it is apparel or flat panel televisions or cell phones or cars, the hotly contested global marketplace is making design a key to competitiveness. Successful firms such as BMW are able to strike a balance between art and commerce that leaves them profitable but also distinguishes them as a premium brand in the eyes of consumers by virtue of a unique style that shines through every finely crafted product Bangle , Not only does the design help raise the sales of the product, it also helps recruit promising workers.

BMW is ranked as the top choice of employer by U. Indergaard , 5 observes, Silicon Alley was the latest round in the long struggle to reinvent New York as a postindustrial city—a process that elite property interests began to promote while factories still dominated Lower Manhattan. In fact, large-scale deindustrialization of Lower Manhattan over the last four decades was not only the result of changes within industrial sectors, but also the product of commercial redevelopment and related rises in real estate prices that dislodged manufacturers. Consequently, New York, like many cities, has become increasingly dependent on cultural industries and producer services that produce or manipulate symbols.

Indergaard , 8 continues, The commercial idea behind Silicon Alley was that the core problem and opportunity for Internet business was not developing technology per se, but creating and distributing new modes of expression that use Internet technology. The Internet economy was said to be a new media and communications business where the main avenue for creating value was developing creative business applications. The germinating of these clusters and their physical embedding in Lower Manhattan was the work of venture capitalists, a few major corporations, and key real estate developers.

This strategy was all the more attractive when the new media was becoming identified as the first new industry to form in the city in half a century. Their provision of subsidized wired space in fourteen buildings played a major role in causing some seven hundred tech firms to settle Downtown Indergaard , 7. From law firms, investment banks, and venture capitalists to providers of accounting, consulting, publishing, multimedia, and advertising services, all depend on the knowledge, skills, contacts, and standing of their staffs.

Hence, in an urban economy dominated by services, highly skilled professionals—especially ones that have accumulated a measure of reputational capital—are coming to play an increasingly decisive role. This socalled creative class is becoming the hinge of the new urban economy Florida Such professionals are among the more mobile—both geographically and occupationally—and also the more demanding consumers of urban services and amenities. People with higher education are more likely to start up a new company and, on balance, will hire more skilled workers, thereby strengthening the human capital resource base of the urban area Colombo, Delmastro, and Grilli Jane Jacobs saw early how diversity was the motor of great American cities.

She described how the mixing of talents and the upward spiral can continue indefinitely. Or companies with specialties jostle together with other companies within a versatile city. The former includes water area, temperate summer, and topographic variation. The latter includes operas, research libraries, and coffee bars. The mosaic index measures the diversity of the immigrant population. Using this metric, East Asian cities do not fare well, highlighting the fact that most of the foreign population comes from only a handful of countries.

Note: The mosaic index measures the diversity of the immigrant population. The larger the number, the more diverse the immigrant population is. Patterns of land use guided by land prices in urban areas are reinforcing the push exerted by technologies on industries. All cities are subject to rent gradients, with prices declining with distance from city centers, which encompass the choicest pieces of real estate and are the focus of activities commanding the highest prices. But rising urban land prices, competition from other uses for valuable downtown real estate, and new zoning regulations that were introduced by municipal authorities to capitalize on higher potential land values and to improve the physical environment in the downtown This pattern can be made worse by deliberate policy actions.

For instance, only 0. The preferred one-floor layout for modern factories, which requires more space, and the importance of efficient logistics for just-in-time delivery and distribution of products also are pulling industry to places where land is plentiful and where multimodal transport services are readily available. As infrastructure improves, options are multiplying—and they span the globe. The displacement and migration of manufacturing industries, the spreading of services, and the emergence of activities rooted in new technologies and wants occurred at a leisurely pace throughout much of the first 70 years of the 20th century.

But this pace turned into a gallop starting in the s. ICT—in particular the Internet—and the associated globalization have had a big hand in this acceleration. In a matter of years, major cities in the higher-income countries completed their transition to postindustrialism, and newly industrializing countries that are still several decades behind the industrial leaders are finding this model difficult to resist. We believe that the accelerating trend toward postindustrial urban societies in East Asia has derived additional impetus from two developments that compound the influence of technological change: a the dissolving of trade barriers and b decentralizing tendencies that are shifting the weight of policy-making responsibility to urban centers, thereby giving them more autonomy to chart their development paths.

Cities are also having to move gingerly toward environments that promote innovativeness through openness to talented people and to fresh ideas. There is no tested formula, although Florida has put forward an intriguing recipe that highlights the importance of teaching and research institutions, of diversity, of recreational and cultural The latest round of integration, which accelerated in the s, parallels an earlier round that occurred roughly three decades before World War I.

The ongoing globalization is proceeding much further, and the effect on urban areas is greater Nayyar ; A. Taylor The fastest-growing cities in the United States have other attributes as well— good and affordable housing, high-quality schooling, health and other urban services, low crime, and first-rate IT and transport facilities, along with low levels of environmental pollution. It has stirred an arms race among East Asian cities that see a higher-order status—and a brand name—as the means of attracting the next generation of industries to ensure continuing prosperity.

The partial unraveling of the centralized state has led to other developments: greater reliance on market signals, but also a deconcentration of administrative and fiscal authority World Bank The responsibility for making policy is becoming multilevel in China as much as in the United States. Increasingly, it is the city mayor who joins forces with central and often provincial governments and makes policy to cope with externalities and missing markets, to provide public goods, to promote industrial change, and to boost employment. Some megacities have acquired more latitude to manage their affairs, but they and the central government also confront the need to take developmental initiatives with longer-run implications.

The successful ones are gaining better access to additional resources from foreign direct investment, fiscal effort, bond financing, and private participation, to finance local development. In China, fiscal decentralization is occurring grudgingly and haphazardly, with the result that resource assignments are frequently insufficient to cover the newly inherited expenditures and that subnational governments struggle to balance their books, often using extrabudgetary sources. Chinese cities are faced with fiscal adjustment to align long-term expenditure responsibilities with revenues Dabla-Norris ; World Bank The vast array of policy instruments mobilized by state governments in the United States to attract or retain industry are described and analyzed by Jenkins, Leicht, and Wendt Willy-nilly, leading East Asian cities are entering the uncertain seas of postindustrialism with few reliable charts to navigate by.

Many subnational governments are having to build the administrative capacity, the financial management skills, and the institutions of governance to efficiently manage the transition. However, they are learning quickly, helped by a tradition of industrial policy making. For them, the demands of the new world of postindustrialization call for an adaptation of policy making to deal with new global exigencies and for implementation at metropolitan levels and with respect to a changed mix of industrial activities.

It is rash to make confident predictions, because social upheavals, unforeseen technological developments, and regional or global political crises, as have happened too frequently in the 20th century, can stall or reverse trends or can send the postindustrial world down unanticipated tangents. Other activities are on track to enlarge their roles, including services of all kinds, which are constantly adjusting to the changing demographics and work rhythms of cities. Very likely, these services will be exposed to the full force of technological advance, and some of the most venerable and laborintensive ones, such as health, education, retail, and logistics, will experience substantial gains in productivity, thereby freeing workers for other jobs, assuming that such jobs materialize.

The implications for urban labor markets, in particular, are immense. First, in most of these cities, the workforce will be growing—through natural increase, lengthening life expectancies, further entry of women into the labor force, and in-migration. The influx of workers from elsewhere, especially of the skilled and entrepreneurial ones, will be an Four plausible technological cum social scenarios for the global society are sketched by Glen and Gordon Second, these cities will be fully exposed to the economic pressures arising from national and global integration. Labor-displacing and increasingly skill-intensive technologies will eat away at most routine, clerical, and repetitive jobs with limited cognitive content. Broad swaths of blue- and white-collar jobs are certain to be nudged to extinction by IT.

No doubt new ones will spring up in their place. Technologies that destroy some jobs can create others, but often these jobs are very different and require other skills not readily acquired by laid-off, middle-age workers. East Asia may continue to benefit from the export of work from higher-income countries, but it is difficult to be sure. Very likely, leisure time will grow. The number of hours worked has declined in Japan and Korea following a trend that surfaced in the industrial countries some time ago.

The tilting relationship between work and recreation can be illustrated by a few statistics from selected countries. For an urban worker in the United States, the average workweek stretched to more than 70 hours in By , it was down to 41 hours—the norm in many Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries by —while weekly earnings had risen by a factor of nine. Similarly, the average housewife, who would put in four hours per day of housework in , now will do less than two hours Greenwood and Vandenbroucke The average American male engaged in 61 hours of market and nonmarket work each week in The average woman spent 54 hours working. By , men worked eight hours fewer per week, and women six hours fewer, resulting in an increase in leisure time of 11 to Hall associates the creativity of cities such as London with their openness to young migrants from all over the world.

It is also worth noting that the economic development of Shanghai over a hundred years, starting in the midth century, is directly attributable to the influx of entrepreneurial migrants. Japan is not alone. Rising incomes and fewer hours of work have led to a parallel rise in expenditures on recreation, from 3 percent of personal consumption in the United States in to 8. In many industrial countries, the share of parttime workers is increasing. More leisure time allows people to acquire and pursue many new interests, which induce the growth of existing urban industries and spawn entirely new ones as well.

The average urban resident had just 2 hours and 21 minutes of leisure per day in Ten years later, leisure time had doubled, but more importantly, leisure time was now under the control of the individual and not the work unit danwei. A significant share of this time was initially spent watching television; however, Friedmann , 79—80 observes that the Chinese urbanite is learning fast. Millions of readers eagerly snap up the skyrocketing number of publications. And wave after wave of new enthusiasms [have] swept across China, such as qigong fever, tourism This conventional view has been challenged by Ramey and Francis , who maintain that per capita leisure time in the United States was unchanged between and —it was 6, hours per year a century ago and is 6, hours in the early 21st century.

They compute leisure time by subtracting market work, schoolwork, commuting to work, and housework. They include personal care time in leisure and view the time spent sleeping as a matter of choice. The increase in schoolwork is the variable that biases their results downward. One corollary to the rising productivity of tertiary industries is the spread of self-service activities, which eat into the leisure time of consumers. Activities ranging from retailing to travel are transferring more and more of the work to the consumer, whether this work is checking out and bagging groceries or searching for deals and making travel arrangements. Some of this transfer of responsibilities to the consumer and the household that is being expedited by ICT and the Internet is leading to better informed consumers and buyers of insurance, medical care, autos, and financial instruments.

Information is flowing more freely than ever before, and the consumer and investor potentially, at least has the upper hand. But without a doubt, the division of labor between service providers and users is shifting, and in the process, many urban jobs are likely to vanish. Down the road, this change has implications for the health sector throughout East Asia, as the population ages. Unless international migration augments the supply of health workers or technological advances reduce the need for nursing and other services, caregiving by family members—mainly women—will make large claims on time Huws In the cramped, Spartan, and frugal living conditions of the early s, per capita living space was a bare 8 square meters; by , it had risen to 25 square meters Wang , National Bureau of Statistics of China Be that as it may, the most vital concerns for postindustrial East Asian cities are the industries to sustain their hitherto headlong income growth, the nature of the jobs that such industries may provide, and the kinds of skills that workers will require.

Urban training institutions and job machines backed by ICT that improve the level of skills and the efficiency of the labor market by matching workers with appropriate job openings would help ensure rising living standards and social stability Freeman ; Lindsay Job machines—even high-tech ones— that generate meager employment could be the start of widening inequalities and the immiserization of the majority. In his study describing a century of change in a midsize American city, Douglas Rae , 7 observes, Capitalism drives growth by remorselessly refusing to preserve the past. No place—city, suburb, hamlet, or farmstead—is secure against the emergence of a new economic geography that drains vital populations and investments in the space of a few decades.

In seeking ever fresh forms of production, ever larger markets, ever higher returns on investment, capitalism routinely destroys older technologies, older plants—and in so doing, profoundly transforms the communities that have formed around them. Rae goes on to describe how New Haven, Connecticut, an important American city in the s, has spiraled into decrepitude and seemingly irremediable urban blight because it failed to replace industrial activities that faded away. Whether East Asian cities are able to nurture a generation of Growing inequality of incomes in China, in Japan, and even in Hong Kong China is a source of growing concern, because such inequality will undermine not just welfare but also social and political stability.

Industries such as biotechnology, IT, multimedia, robotics, and fashion are among the promising candidates that we examine in the book. This new phase of industrialization leads into uncharted territory. The challenge for the megacities is to augment and realize their dynamic comparative advantages. By doing so, they will generate growth, vitally needed jobs, and momentum for the entire economy. The small number of these cities, however, belies their importance. Ten years ago, naming a single one would have been difficult. In the early s, as noted in chapter 1, East Asian development was still focused on building manufacturing capability in a few strategically located urban areas. Now, some light manufacturing and resource-based industries are beginning to leave the major cities, and the economic spotlight is turning toward more advanced manufacturing and, in particular, toward services.

Because the transition is in its early phase, postindustrial cities in East Asia constitute a hierarchy. At the apex stands Tokyo, in certain respects an atypical postindustrial metropolis, followed by Singapore, Bangkok, Seoul, Beijing, and Shanghai. These cities are the dramatis personae of our story, and hence, each needs to be introduced and its inclusion in the postindustrial hierarchy explained. It is a world city more populous than New York and London, the only true comparators, and larger in economic scale. The recent trajectory of those cities resembles that of Tokyo in the s and s, which has retained a sizable manufacturing sector in the outlying prefectures even as services have increased their share of the urban production in the core areas.

During the 17th century, Tokugawa Ieyasu completed the unification of Japan begun by Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi and made Edo the seat of his shogunate, although Kyoto—where the emperor lived—remained the capital. At the start of the Meiji era in , the new emperor formally moved the capital to Edo and renamed it Tokyo, or Eastern Capital.

Despite the massive destruction wreaked by air raids during World War II, Tokyo recovered within a decade because enough of its human capital and social infrastructure survived and, amazingly, the industrial geography of Japan remained unchanged, a phenomenon that has been recently documented by Davis and Weinstein The city of Edo was divided into two parts: the Yamanote, or high city, which spread out across the Kanto plateau, contained the homes of the daimyo and an assortment of temples, while the nearby and much more crowded Shitamachi, or low city, was where the commoners lived.

The streets of Edo formed an interlocking maze around Edo castle, which made it difficult for invaders to find their way to the city center. The twisted tangle of streets and alleys was re-created when Tokyo was reconstructed in the s and s. The streets still curved and meandered, and they lacked names and a logical system of numbering to identify homes Richie , Similarly, when plague struck London in to , nearly a quarter to a third of the population was struck down. But despite extraordinary rates of mortality, urban craft and manufacturing industries continued to function even as the ranks of workers and businesspeople were gravely thinned out.

When the plague was over, recovery was rapid see Moote and Moote The share of industry peaked in the early s and since then has been on the decline under the pressure of forces described in chapter 1. This slide accelerated from the latter half of the s, when the appreciation of the yen that resulted from the Plaza Accord among the Group of Eight G-8 countries and skyrocketing real estate prices in the Tokyo area led to a progressive transfer of manufacturing plants to other parts of Japan and to Southeast Asia.

This population growth is contributing to the economic growth of the urban region, as is the accumulation of human capital. Manufacturing industry in the central districts of Tokyo now produces just 10 percent of GDP, compared with over 20 percent in the early s, whereas services account for over three-fourths and utilities for the balance. In the greater Tokyo area, the share of manufacturing was 13 percent in These broad aggregates are but a small numerical tip of a complex, many-layered iceberg with a fascinating past. The grouping of some Japanese firms into keiretsu may have accelerated the pace at which industry transferred out because suppliers tended to follow the lead firms abroad see, for instance, Blonigen, Ellis, and Fausten On market size and productivity, see Davis and Weinstein They estimate that the productivity gains can be as much as 3.

On the scope for synergy in polycentric urban regions, see Meijers The advantages of diversity were empirically demonstrated by Glaeser and others and since then has also been shown by other researchers. See Rosenthal and Strange for a review of this literature. This industrial system consists of five complementary components. First and foremost are the leading multinational corporations MNCs themselves, their own production facilities, those of their main suppliers, their headquarters, and their research labs. More than a third are located in Tokyo, compared with a little over one-tenth in Osaka, the second-largest concentration Bureau of Industrial and Labor Affairs A multitude of subcontractors and smaller businesses is the supporting cast—the second component.

Some are linked closely to one or a few MNCs; others sell directly to consumers and households in the urban marketplace. The longstanding competitiveness of the leading Japanese firms derives in no small part from their relations with subcontractors that work closely with the industrial corporations to research, design, and produce components Smitka These firms serve as subcontractors to larger firms Fujita and Hill Orders that individual contractors cannot fill are farmed out to neighboring firms. This strategy has resulted in a cross-hatching of vertical from the larger firms and horizontal among subcontractors themselves subcontracting arrangements. Many of the small factories in Ota-ku were established by entrepreneurs during the s when the Japanese economy was taking off.

Of all the new start-ups between and , 90 percent were in the machine tools sector. Ota-ku is the only place in Japan where the entire process of making an industrial machine can be done in one area. Many of these establishments specialize in few processes in which they excel, 5. Also, Tokyo is where the majority of foreign firms prefer to locate. Just let things go. You dont have to change each others minds. Dont walk away, Mr. Morton added. This is a problem Ive had in my life. I used to think I was protecting the other person by not venting myself when I was angry. You really do need to talk it out. Try to keep the communication lines open.

Pastor Pratt began the service discussing the varied origins of Valentines Day and then spoke on the importance of remembering the reason for marriage. The fundamental purpose of marriage is not just physical intimacy, which can become a little more challenging as we get older. But its rather an intimacy of heart and life shared with each other, he said. A deeper intimacy comes with that trust. It is a proven, time-tested, reliable trust that we have. Married to Jeanne for 43 years, the pastor recalled a reunion he had this past summer with four of their closest couple friends.

They all brought their wedding pictures and chatted fondly about the days when they all lived in the same city as somethings. We all looked a little bit different back then , he told the group. There were fewer lines on our faces, our hair was a different color and our body shapes had slightly altered. Then came a realization. In many respects, when you look at a young couple getting married, there are many ways in which they look very beautiful, he said. Our society tends to think of that as real beauty.

The beauty of young people on their wedding day, taking their vows, is the beauty of a promise made. As he talked, many in the group seemed to reminisce over those promises made. Theres a different kind of beauty that comes on down the road of life, the pastor continued. The beauty of a promise kept is much more beautiful, and in Gods eyes there is nothing more precious. A tear or three could be seen among the loving couples at this point.

Its wonderful to start out with confetti and celebrations and flowers and toasts, but its far more precious that down the road of life, we can look back and say we have kept the promise, done what we vowed to do back then. Later the couples stood, gazing into each others eyes as Pastor Pratt instructed them to recite their vows. As he neared the end and was ready to declare their collective vows renewed, a sudden eagerness came upon the crowd. He hesitated and then failed spectacularly to hold back his amusement. The kiss will come in a moment, he said to a round of giggles from the happy newlyweds. Membership at the senior center has surged from 80 in January to more than 1, today.

While our name has changed, our mission has remained the same, says Jaclynn Faffer, Ph. We will continue to empower seniors and families in the community through support and social services. An estimated 86, people over the age of 65 live in the greater Naples area. Roughly one-third of them live alone. Obviously, a need exists for social engagement and so much more, Ms. Faffer says. The revamped focus of Naples Senior Center at JFCS is to meet an increasing demand for social services among seniors and to help those suffering from isolation, loneliness and dementia.

Programs available at the center include dementia respite care, geriatric case management, mental health counseling and a food pantry, all designed to support and strengthen people of all backgrounds and beliefs, often at times of vulnerability and crisis. The goal of this rebranding is to become a stronger, more identifiable part of the community so we can better serve those in need, Ms. Faffer said. The center at Castello Drive supports and enriches the lives of seniors and families in Collier County and southern Lee County by providing tools to address lifes challenges. It is a gathering place with a nurturing environment for seniors to socialize, learn and stay active.

Regular activities include movies every Monday, art and computer classes, exercise sessions, ballroom dance and line dancing lessons, book discussions, card games and mah jongg, needlepoint lessons and foreign language classes. In addition to Ms. Faffer, a staff of 12 and more than volunteers help with various programs, duties drivers, home visitors, lunch servers, pantry helpers, etc. The board of trustees has 24 members. For information, visit www. PAGE 17 www. Our Beautiful Showroom Today! Send Experience to: Chuck brotherslighting. Gladchuk is the recipient of the John L. David Mahoney, a former football player for the academy and Estero High School who is the recruiting coordinator for Navy football, will also attend.

The Naples Mens Bridge Club invites retirees who want to join games from 9 a. For more information, email Ted Streppa at tstreppa aol. The next meeting is Feb. Guests and new members are always welcome. Reservations are not required. Attendees order from the menu and pay for their meals. Pilot International focuses its charitable and educational efforts on brain-related disorders and disabilities, including traumatic brain injuries, dementia and autism. For more information, call Sue Lester Toast of The Coast Toastmasters Club meets from noon to 1 p.

The next meetings are Feb. Visitors are always welcome. For more information, call or visit www. Solo Singles of Collier County creates and promotes recreation, culture, charitable and social activities for those persons single, divorced or widowed. Members meet at 5 p. The Feb. For membership information, call Carey Hughes at or email careyjh aol. Wine Tasters of Naples members meet from p. Members enjoy socializing and working together on philanthropic and service projects to benefit the community.

Light bites are served, and attendees pay for their own beverages. The club sponsors other social events throughout the year as well. For more information, visit www. Pi Phi alumnae are also invited to mix and mingle from p. Thursday, Feb. For reservations or information about either event, call Connie Kindsvater at or email conskind aol. Doors open at p. Costumes in keeping with the theme of Cabaret are encouraged.

For reservations or more information, call or visit www. The Genealogical Society of Collier County meets at 7 p. Tuesday, Feb. Linda Ryan will present Where in the World? Maps and Apps for Geneaology Geography. Admission is free. For more information, call Jeanne Bruehler at or visit www. Naples Sunrise Bay Toastmasters invite early birds who want to gain confidence speaking in public to its meetings from a. First-time visitors are always welcome to observe.

For more information, call All are welcome. For more information, call or The East Naples Civic Association meets for lunch and a program on the third Thursday of the month at a. County Commissioner Donna Fiala is the Feb. For more information call or visit www. The PCBug club welcomes all who are interested in learning more about computers and mobile devices, regardless of level of expertise. Meetings are at 5 p. Attendance is free, and guests are always welcome. On Feb. For more information, call Norma Small at or email normafs aol. The Gulf Coast Orchid Alliance meets from p. Admission is free, and all are welcome.

The alliance holds its annual orchid show and sale Friday-Sunday, March , at North Collier Regional Park, with free Saturday lectures and hundreds of exotic orchids and blooming plants on exhibit and for sale. Social hour starts at a. An optional luncheon starts at p. DAR members and guests are welcome. For reservations, location and more information, call or visit www. The Womens Solo Travel Group meets from 1 to 3 p. For more information, call Kathy Bogan Cannady at or email naplesforyou gmail. All proceeds benefit Avow Hospice. For tickets or more information, call Phyllis Jensen at Naples Ship Modelers meets at a. The next gatherings are Feb. All are invited to enjoy lunch together afterward at a location TBA.

For more information, call Dick Ritchie at or email dcritchie comcast. Several IMCA past presidents and board members will be honored guests. The clubs mission is to promote international understanding and encourage learning, camaraderie and mutual respect among men of experience, honor and integrity with strong international backgrounds or interests through a series of friendly and participative educational, cultural and social events.

For more information, call Mark Dines at or email imcacentral gmail. The next meeting is March 1. Judging is at p. Everyone who owns or admires Corvettes is welcome to attend Corvettes of Naples meetings at p. Tuesday, March 6. The free club is for staff and volunteers of non-profit organizations who want to learn more about using technology to advance their mission. Admission is free to regular monthly meetings, and a light dinner is served. RSVPs are requested to birgit.

For more information about the organization, visit www. Ikebana International Naples Chapter meets at a. Wednesday, March 7, at Naples Botanical Garden. The ginza market will be open prior to the a. Attendance is free. Seated: Josephine Hanna and Robert Docs. Flamenco guitarist Gyorgy Lakatos and Joe Graebner 3. Frank Halas and Diane Halas 4. Seated: Bard Bardsen and Bente Bardsen. The next meeting is March 7. All are welcome, with proceeds benefitting the EAA Young Eagles program that acquaints youth ages with aviation as a career. The next breakfast is Feb.

The Naples chapter is one of approximately 1, EAA chapters worldwide. Members are pilots, student pilots, plane builders and aviation enthusiasts. Questers, a club for anyone who loves antiques and preservation, meets at 11 a. The next meeting is March 8. For more information, call Roberta Raass at All teachers are welcome. For more information, call Paul Murphy at or Robert Lomicka at The Naples chapter of Sons of the American Revolution meets for lunch and a program starting at a. Visitors and prospective members are welcome. For more information, call Tom Woodruff at or visit www. For reservations or more information, call Dave Nordhoff at or email davidcnordhoff gmail.

Cocktails and dinner are included. To sign up or for more information, call the office of alumni engagement at or visit www. Email club news to Cindy Pierce at cpier c e florida weekly. Check out the list and place your bids at www. Raffle winner will choose a travel adventureFriends of Foster Children Forever has added an online raffle to its 11th annual Boogie Bash fundraiser. Anyone can purchase tickets to be entered into a drawing for the opportunity to choose a travel package to Paris, Tuscany, Ireland, the Westminster Dog Show or Washington, D.

Winners do not need to attend the event. They can be purchased at www. For information about tickets to the Boogie Bash, call or visit www. Monday-Friday, Feb. TSA Pre-check is an expedited screening program that enables identified low-risk air travelers to avoid removing their shoes, belts and outwear as well as liquids and laptops before going through airport security. TSA Pre-check has more than lanes at more than U. In order to sign up at the mobile van, individuals must begin the application process online and have documentation proving identity and U. While enrolling in TSA pre-check is beneficial for domestic traveling, Global Entry might be a better option for international travelers.

To start the application process visit, www. Appointments are made online. The spirit of solidarity that drew hundreds of community members and clergy representing many faiths to the shabbat will continue at We are One: A Musical Celebration at Temple Shalom on Sunday evening, March The celebration will be one of unity, solidarity, brotherhood and the spirit of America. Professional New York performers will be joined by local talent, clergy and prominent individuals in a minute musical celebration of unity, solidarity and brotherhood created exclusively for Temple Shalom. Additional sponsorship opportunities that include a dinner on March 10 are also available. A keepsake journal containing poems, excerpts from famous documents and messages of solidarity and congratulations to Mr.

Beuth will be given to attendees at the March 11 event. For tickets or more information, and to send a message of solidarity for the journal, call Temple Shalom at or visit www. Falls are the leading cause of injury and death for seniors everywhere. In Collier County, the rate of deaths from falls is 55 percent higher than the Florida-wide rate. Those who attend the free safety program will be able to receive a free balance screening and take home a written report. For those who bring a list of their medications, a Walgreens pharmacist will evaluate and explain potential drug interactions. A tai chi expert will explain the benefits of a regular exercise program, and Sunshine Ace Hardware will have an exhibit of items that can lessen the risk of falls in homes and businesses.

Here are some more facts about falls: One-third of Americans ages 65 and older fall each year. And here are some simple things to do at home to help reduce the risk of falling, as suggested by the national Fall Prevention Coalition: Keep pathways clear. Create storage for things that usually end up on the floor, such as shoes and papers. Be aware of uneven surfaces. Look out for changes in the level of flooring at doorways and in areas between carpeting and tile.

Remove throw rugs or use gripper padding to secure them. Keep frequently used items close by and easily accessible. Reaching high or bending down can cause seniors to lose their balance. Light the way. Install bright lights, have switches at both ends of stairs and hallways. Install nightlights and switches that glow in the dark. Add grab bars in the bathroom near the toilet and in the shower.

Intall handrails on both sides of stairs. Plus, Sweetwater Lifestyles, an all-inclusive boat club at Bonita Bay, will be making its grand debut. Backwater Jacks will also be hosting Saturday, the 24th, 4pm-6pm. Backwater Jacks is selling non-resident Jacks Pack dining memberships. Ship your car home with us. Get the home state advantage. Saturday, March 24, at Moorings Presbyterian Church. This years event is designed to bring parents, grandparents, health-care professionals, educators and kids together for a meaningful dialogue that leads to personal revelation and powerful positive change in homes, schools and communities.

The symposium will feature a screening of physician, parent and filmmaker Delaney Rustons award-winning documentary Screenagers, which probes the vulnerable corners of family life and depicts the messy struggles over social media, video games, internet addiction and academics. Screenagers emerged directly from a challenge I was facing in my own life raising teenagers whose attention was increasingly consumed by screenbased activities, Dr.

Ruston says. As a physician, I became increasingly anxious to know how our new tech world affects childrens development. The Stanford-trained physician studied many aspects of filmmaking with a particular focus on film as a vehicle for social change. She uses filmmaking as a platform for advocacy and has partnered with groups such as National Alliance on Mental Illness and the World Health Organization.

In addition to Screenagers, which explores the impact of video gaming and social media on self-esteem, empathy, social skills development, academics and brain development, she has produced Unlisted: A Story of Schizophrenia, about her father, and Hidden Pictures, about global mental health, both for PBS. A discussion with Lisa Tabb, the films executive producer, will follow the screening. The mother of two teens, Ms. Tabb has more than 25 years of experience developing content for television, web and print specializing in parenting, travel, consumer issues and daily news.

Prior to becoming a documentary film producer, she spent 15 years producing the news at ABC 7 News in San Francisco, with a focus on trends around parenting, raising kids and emerging technologies. CEUs are available for professionals. Symposium sponsorship opportunities are also available. Buy it off the oor or have it delivered the next day! Love your Animals Week Feb. Guests will be treated to animal encounters with the Conservancys special ambassadors and unique photo opportunities with wildlife. Dont be surprised if Gordon B. Eagle, the Conservancys official mascot, tries to lay a smooch on your cheek during a photo op. Everyone is in a loving mood around Feb.

You just might fall in love with one of our amazing critters during your visit. Children will be able to write and deliver a Valentines Day message to Horatio, the Conservancys year-old ambassador red-tailed hawk, and his fellow ambassador animals. The Tender Loving Care program will show guests how the von Arx Wildlife Hospital rescues, rehabilitates and releases wildlife, while Dare to Care will explain how everyone can help prevent wildlife injuries and what steps to take after finding an injured animal. The Conservancys Nature Center is open from a. To learn more about the Conservancy and its programs, visit www. Conservancy interns Kody Knighten, Ebony Welborn and Jessica Blosberg with some of the wildlife centers young alligator residents.

Fort Myers Walden Center Dr. Visit or call any branchConsolidate debt or make home improvements! Golfers do not have to be alumni of a Big Ten school. Make your own foursome or ask to be put in one. Sign up by calling Neal Biege at or emailing psuboat gmail. For information about participating, volunteering, sponsoring or donating raffle items, call or email alex namicollier.

To sign up or for more information, visit www. To sign up or for more information, call , visit www. My Autism Connection holds its second annual Walk the Spectrum event from 11 a. Entertainment, games and vendor booths with information about a variety of services will be on site, and the Lee County Sheriffs Office will provide fingerprinting services. All proceeds will help My Autism Connection support efforts to help individuals with autism develop skills toward independence and healthy relationships. The Gulf Coast Runners St. Patricks Day 5K Fun Run sets out at 6 p. Sign up at www. The third annual Out of the Darkness walk to benefit the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention takes place from p.

The walk is organized by the universitys Counseling and Psychological Services office. Proceeds will help fund suicide prevention research and educational programs to eliminate the stigma surrounding suicide and its causes and to encourage those who are suffering from mental illness to seek treatment. Event sponsors needed. Registration begins at noon and the shotgun start is at 1 p. Dinner will follow the hole tournament. Sign up by emailing membership quailvillagegolfclub. To sign up or for more information, call or www. Email news about charity sports events to Cindy Pierce at cpierce floridaweekly. Hometown Care. A powerful element in ghting cancer. Proud to serve patients at our ve Collier County locations.

When Desert Storm veteran Lynette Bells follicular lymphoma went into remission, she chased her dreams to Florida and pursued a career in photography. However, during a routine doctors visit here, she learned her cancer had returned. Today, Lynettes cancer has surrendered, proving when hope and science join forces, great outcomes can happen. Deborah Z. Glick, MD Joel S. Grossman, MD Douglas D. Morgan, MD Daniel J. Morris, MD Steven B. Zehr, M. CEO Medical Director Southwest Floridas premier outpatient surgery facility, designed specically for joint replacement African-Americans and blacks continue to have the highest numbers of HIV compared to other races and ethnicities.

Same-day results will be available at testing sites in Collier County. Heres the schedule: Marion E. Fether Medical Center Madison Ave. First St. Wednesday, Feb. Call for more information. Tamiami Trail, Building H: Testing offered from 8 a. Wednesday-Thursday, Feb. By pushing the discovery to commercialization, UF researchers hope to make green sunscreens more available, reducing dependence on oxybenzoneand octinoxate-based sunscreens. Oxybenzone and octinoxate accumulate in aquatic environments, are toxic to marine life and potentially disrupt the human reproductive system. The researchers found a more efficient way to harvest the UV-absorbing amino acid known as shinorine, which is produced by marine organisms including cyanobacteria and macroalgae.

The conventional method extracts shinorine from red algae, which takes as long as a year to grow and has a long processing time. The new method reduces harvesting time to less than two weeks. Principal investigator Yousong Ding, Ph. Researchers selected a strain of freshwater cyanobacteria, Synechocystis, as a host cell for shinorine expression because it grows quickly and is easy for scientists to modify its genes. Next, they mined the genes responsible for the synthesis of shinorine from a native producer, the filamentous cyanobacterium Fischerella. The researchers inserted these genes into Synechocystis. Using this method, they produced 2. This is the first time anyone has demonstrated the ability to photosynthetically overproduce shinorine, Mr.

Ding said. Not only is this an advancement in shinorine research, its a big step forward for the entire field of cyanobacterial natural products research. The production method researchers discovered has broader applications for the production of other known cyanobacterial products and could expedite the process of turning cyanobacterial genomes into potential new drug leads. Researchers secondarily confirmed that the shinorine they harvested through the new method protects cells from UV rays.

To test this, they exposed shinorine-making cells to UV radiation. Control cells that do not produce shinorine experienced an obvious decline in population from UV-B exposure. In the other cells, shinorine acted as sunscreen against UV-B light, which helped the cells live and grow better. Dings shinorine study in January. Call to reserve your seat! Patrick Flaharty in person who will be discussing the latest advancements in facial rejuvenation including the non-surgical facelift, laser facial rejuvenation, the Azul Natural-lift and much more! Flahartys new book! From 10 a. The University of Pittsburgh hosts the annual Winter Academy. Limited seating at the Naples event is free and open to the public. Monday, March 5, in the universitys Cohen Center Ballroom.

Experts will share information about reducing the risk of dementia through nutrition and lifestyle changes; enhancing dementia care through music; and evaluating prevention therapies. Jessica Langbaum, Ph. Isaacson will also discuss recognizing how Alzheimers disease develops long before symptoms appear. Cohen was featured in the award-winning documentary film Alive Inside that showed the healing power of music on those with Alzheimers disease. Registration is required by Feb. Free program focuses on prostate cancerAll are invited to a free presentation about prostate cancer by urologist David Wilkinson of Gulfshore Urology from a.

With survivor Jerry Solomon facilitating, Dr. Wilkinson will discuss the latest on detection, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. RSVP by calling Mr. Solomon at or emailing sol comcast. Symposium covers Parkinsons diseaseHealth care professionals, therapists, volunteers, caregivers and those living with Parkinsons disease are invited to a morning of education and inspiration at the annual Hope Parkinson Symposium on Friday, Feb. Keynote speaker Dr. Symposium check-in begins at a. Seating is limited and registration is required at www.

The mornings lead sponsor is Abbvie. Elder Law Attorneys. Hope Healthcare is a not-for-profit health care organization dedicated to providing care and comfort to every individual and their loved ones as they fulfill lifes journey. His expertise in having done thousands of implants allo ws him to What Are Dental Implants? More Affordable Than You Think. Are Implants For You? Call today to make an appointment. COM DR. Spike is as cute as he can be, but boy, does he have bad breath. My dad wont get his teeth cleaned, though, because that means putting him under anesthesia, and hes afraid Spike will die. Thats a common fear.

Many places try to counter it by offering non-anesthetic dental cleanings. In other words, they scrape the visible plaque and tartar off the teeth. And its not like the recent dental cleaning I had, which involved lying back in a comfy chair and watching Anthony Bourdain eat his way through Sicily. Pets must be restrained during the process, which can be distressing for them, or even cause injury if they squirm at the wrong moment and are accidentally jabbed with a sharp scaling device. Pet dentals are done under anesthesia for many reasons. The aforementioned squirming, for one. Anesthesia ensures that pets remain still and dont experience fear, pain or discomfort during the procedure.

Besides reduced pain and stress for pets, anesthesia allows the veterinarian to better perform a complete examination of the mouth, clean tooth surfaces thoroughly, get beneath the gumline where bacteria hide, and take X-rays of teeth to ensure no damage or infection is lurking. By the numbers, anesthesia is a low-risk procedure. The risk of death associated with general anesthesia in both healthy and sick dogs and cats is approximately 1 in , says Bruno H. In the case of healthy animals, the risk drops to 1 in 2, Many factors have improved anesthesia safety over the years, Dr.

Pypendop says. These likely include drugs with more consistent and predictable effects, better knowledge of the effects of drugs on vital function, better ability to monitor and therefore prevent or treat abnormalities and better pre-anesthetic screening. Your pet wont have the option to watch Animal Planet while hes worked on, but pre-anesthetic blood work ensures that he doesnt have any underlying health conditions that could be affected by anesthesia. Monitoring of blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, body temperature and other vital signs during the procedure helps all pets stay safe and comfortable.

More advanced equipment for monitoring pets during anesthesia allows for thorough assessment of the pets status during the procedure, says Cheryl Blaze, assistant professor of anesthesia at Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine. A diva bride from old money marrying money who lines in that house takes in roomies has a part time job in her menopauseMARYRose never graduated from high school. Which was itPreposterous. Would the state really feel it has grounds to prosecute a negligent arson case when their only evidence is a statement given by a dead person Are statements by dead people even allowed in as evidence Isnt one of the principles of the legal system that the witness actually has to be there on the stand and available for cross examination otherwise how is the accused supposed to defend himselfThats really not an inconsistency R.

Files on those drives showed that he wrote a study in concluding that adding a citizenship question to the census would allow Republicans to draft even more extreme gerrymandered maps to stymie Democrats. But then she later mentions a son Matthew and Matthew actually appears on Golden Palace. I always got the impression that Stan Dorothy and Sophia had moved to Miami at some point while they were still married. As well as getting herself stuffed with cock she taken up BD work. In what worldIt probably was but these problems were throughout the series not just after the fifth season.

What kind of hock shop pays that money for a ringI on the hand love this thread. Ive heard one of the actresses say in an interview that Harris was unhappy about this and it contributed to her pulling back from the show. For all the years I have seen quoted and discussed the episodeswith family coworkers and friends I know I am not alone with watching and loving the show. He went to work full time after graduating from the University of South Carolina with a degree in business in.

R would you say that teenagersearly year olds today are pop culture aware Do you know that many of them dont know that King Kong was a remake and that the Charlies Angels movies were based on a tv showAnd Im sure this has been mentioned but the inconsistencies as to how long their individual husbands have been dead. One key person wasnt moved by Muellers statementWhat about the one where Blanche and Dorothy decide that Rose is addicted to pain killers but Rose insists shes not. That would make her when the show started which she was supposed to be at least. Same with Dorothys high school reunion with Trudy. I never get tired watching Bea she was so brilliant.

Rose answered that by saying the only reason Barbara liked Dorothy because she fawned all over her. Speaking of writeins how is it Rose didnt see the changes Dorothy and Blanche wrote in to her St. What were the women doing during the commericial That is so unrealistic. Putting aside the fact that men and old ladies isnt exactly a party isnt Blanche suspicious of the only guest she doesnt know If I invited people over and some random person showed up and started drinking the free booze Id be asking questionsIn addition to Angie Dickinson Blanche also had a stalkerish obsession with Ms. It was mentioned many times that Stan and Dorothy were Mormon dating beliefs married for years and they only got married because she was pregnant yet when Michael showed up he was only in his midlate s.

Its such a fun shamelessly broad season I love it. Not exactly r. Morothys reunion was with Barney Miller in Miami but regardless she and Trudy legitimate online dating websites went to Brooklyn in dating glass vases High School. Looks like they had to sew those jeans on him. This is an inconsistency with reality Why did Rose and Dorothy constantly wear sweaters in the sweltering heat of subtropical Miami where the humidity is often around I found that the most absurd part of how many more online dating sites do we need the show. And another woman was wearing the dress when she killed her father at his birthday dinner during the murder mystery weekend. Yeah the girls have always had fluid finances.

The Masiellos volunteer teaching water safety what is the song pumped up kicks about students in Lee schools in exchange Who Is Harriet Spielbergs Instructing The Children the lot and amenities Who Is Harriet Spielbergs Instructing The Children W. A day after the suicide, Jake receives Who Is Harriet Spielbergs Instructing The Children letter from Seth mailed before Who Is Harriet Spielbergs Instructing The Children death, of course instructing him Who Is Harriet Spielbergs Instructing The Children carry Who Is Harriet Spielbergs Instructing The Children the terms of the new will no Who Is Harriet Spielbergs Instructing The Children what. Thailand is already a significant exporter of rice, fruit, meat, feed, and processed Who Is Harriet Spielbergs Instructing The Children. In what worldIt probably was but these problems were throughout the series not just after the fifth season. For more information, call or Benson said. The presidential palace is an 8-minute walking distance, and the trinity cathedral is a 5-minute walk from hotel isaka.

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